Nonchemical control of a perennial weed, Cirsium arvense, in arable cropping systems. A review

There is an abstract

Arvense is a type of plant Scop. is a perennial weed that causes yield losses in both conventional and organic arable systems C Arvense is a word Control is essential because of the negative impacts it has on the environment. Conventional input-based systems useicidal treatments as the main control methods, but they are not always more effective than cultural practices. The cultural practices used in arable systems are time-Consuming and expensive. Knowledge of these control practices is needed to guarantee their efficiency C Arvense is a word It is essential. The review takes the key points from the previous literature and makes them better C Arvense is a word The literature on different strategies of biology can be analyzed C Arvense is a word Control without chemicals. These strategies are limited C Arvense is a word dispersal, weakness of root reserves, root removal, competition with cultivated species, and physical destruction . There is a review of reported experiences using these strategies C Arvense is a word Control, and relevant information is presented on the biological processes that are associated with each practice. The benefits and drawbacks of these strategies C Arvense is a word Even though there are some knowledge gaps, control and the possibility of combining them in a crop system are emphasized. One individual practice is not enough to provide long-term control, as confirmed by this review C Arvense is a wordFurther studies are required on the combinations of control strategies and processes. There is a lack of knowledge about the effect C Arvense is a word Control strategies

  • 2.1 Knowledge of their biology is important in controlling perennial weeds

  • 2.2.1 The development cycle C Arvense is a word The importance of propagation

  • 2.2.2 The dynamics of things C Arvense is a word During the year, root reserves are maintained

  • 3 Nonchemical control methods are notchemical C Arvense is a word based on biological processes

  • 3.2 The root reserves are weakened by mechanical interventions C Arvense is a word

  • 3.3.3 Control crops and competitive annual crops C Arvense is a word

  • 3.4.2 is a new version of the previous version root extract methods C Arvense is a word Control

The introduction is about something

Perennial weeds are the most problematic weeds in arable systems The year 2007) C Arvense is a word Scop. is problematic in both conventional and unconventional 1993) And. The organic systems are Rhysinger and Hyvnen 2006Glemnitz et al The year 2007) All European countries, Asia, Canada, and the northern USA are included. . In the Southern Hemisphere C Arvense is a word It has become an issue in Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa C Arvense is a word In Europe, North America, New Zealand, and Australia, it is required to have its control 2010) C Arvense is a word It can cause yield losses of 50% or more in arable crops C Arvense is a word Shoots per m2 O’ Sullivan and his team wrote a book 1982, 1985Patriquin et al 1986Studies show that yield losses increase linearly C Arvense is a word Shoots per m2 O’ Sullivan and his team wrote a book 1982, 1985) And. In some situations, it can reach 70% 2010). Winter wheat has allelopathic effects 1984Pilipaviius and Romaneckas were mentioned The year of) And. The crops are called legume crops 1Golubinova and Ilieva are related The year 2015)

The development of a C Arvense is a word A patch in a spring peaPisum sativum The fieldA) Sexual reproduction can be achieved through flowering and seed production. (A) The multiplication of the axillary buds on a creeping horizontal root is done through the development of new aerial shootsc) . E. Favrelire, agro-transfert Ressources et tertoires

C Arvense is a word Management practices that can be used to fight the disease include high rates of herbicide, cultural practices, and manual interventions. Chemical weeding is the primary practice in conventional farming systems C Arvense is a word, One of the main pesticides used is glyphectin. . In modern agriculture, weed control should be based on the combination of various control methods, with the chemical solution being the last resort 2000Liebman et al In 2009Westwood et al This year). Chemical control is not always more effective than cultural practices In 2017:Davis et al This yearIn organic farming C Arvense is a word Control is more complicated on farms without livestock because of the presence of grasslands in the rotation The year 2016) C Arvense is a word Control is important because the problem is likely to be solved quickly and the impact is long. There is a need for studies on alternative control methods C Arvense is a word To reduce the use of pesticides

This review describes the methods of nonchemical control C Arvense is a word It is connected with biological processes involved in its development. The lack of knowledge is highlighted, as the side effects of these practices are discussed

C Arvense is a word Implications for its control are biology and genetics

Knowledge of their biology is important in controlling perennial weeds

Perennial weeds are characterized by their ability to spread by both seed production and propagation 2003) . Perennial weeds can store elements and remain alive for several years by being able to grow in specific root structures 1928Hkansson 2003) . Clone development from buds located on root structures is how propagation occurs. Most of the buds are maintained through apical dominance 1997)

Cropping practices can cause root structure fragmentation that can cause propagation. New clones can be produced if root structure is broken. This phenomenon is called regeneration ability 1982, 2003; dock Gustavsson 1997) . Perennial weeds are not as effective as annual weeds in the control of the weeds 2012)

There are biological particularities C Arvense is a word

The development cycle C Arvense is a word The importance of propagation

C Arvense is a word The plant requires male and female flowers to be present 1968Lalonde and Roitberg 1994). Some cases of low seed production by male flowers have been reported 1996) C Arvense is a word Plants that are isolated in a field are not able to produce seeds 1964Cussans and Heimann 1996)

Seed production C Arvense is a word It is reported to be large 1928Claupein and Gruber In 2009Donald (1990It can be limited. This difference can be linked to the way that the brain works C Arvense is a word The populations are Heimann and Cussans 1996). The sex ratio can affect the quantity of seeds 1994Cussans and Heimann 1996). Most of the seeds are able to grow quickly 1968Cussans and Heimann 1996The development of new patches in a field through seeds is a usual phenomenon 2004Even if the establishment of a seedling is slow due to their low competitiveness 1996Sexual reproduction is important C Arvense is a word The genetics of Heimann and Cussans 1996Tiley 2010It favors its adaptation to environmental conditions and its competitive ability 1989; Bommarco et al 2010Nobarinezhad et al 2020The introduction of seed production can be done C Arvense is a word The light plumes attached to the achenes allow seeds to be transported by the wind 1975,Tiley 2010). A small number of seeds can travel a long distance, with 9.9% and 0.4% of the plumes still attached to an achene at distances of 10 m and 1 km, respectively 1960Tiley 2010) C Arvense is a word vegetative propagation is the main cause of spread in a field 1Heimann and Cussans are related 1996Tiley 2010Plants coming from fragments grow faster than those coming from seeds In Tiley 2010)

Specific organs allow for vegetation propagation C Arvense is a word Storage and expansion of resources C Arvense is a word The roots are located below the top 20 cm of the soil 1989) That have been found as deep as 6.75. Rogers 1928There are creeping horizontal roots that present axillary buds 1McAllister and Haderlie are both related 1985Tiley 2010). The shoots can be developed from any part of the roots 2010). The horizontal and vertical roots hold thetive resources 1928) McAllister and Haderlie are preferentially in the vertical roots 1985)

C Arvense is a word Plants can be formed from root fragments from the two-leaf stage C Arvense is a word Wilson 1979) This regeneration ability allows for the survival and production of new C Arvense is a word Even if aerial parts are cut, shoots 1982There are root fragments C Arvense is a word Plants can be grown from a size of 10mm 1972Or even 3–6mm 1934), Depending on genetic differences between populations. . The regeneration ability of root fragments is unaffected by the depth of burial 1989; The year of)

The dynamics of things C Arvense is a word During the year, root reserves are maintained

Knowledge of the storage process of Carbohydrate is needed to control perennial weeds. Rodriguez and his associates The year 2007Nkurunziza and Streibig The year 2011) It influences the optimum period for interventions 2010Nkurunziza and Streibig The year 2011)

In the spring C Arvense is a word McAllister and Haderlie use the root reserves of the gnat to produce new aerial shoots 1985). After several weeks of growth, aerial shoots are sufficient to fulfill plant requirements. The compensation point is the stage that ends in this figure2Hkansson 2003Nkurunziza and Streibig The year 2011It is important to know the compensation point C Arvense is a word The root reserves are low immediately after this stage. Once C Arvense is a word The compensation point is reached due to the increase in photosynthesis C Arvense is a word Shoot development is going fast 2003)

The point is compensation. When the energy produced by photosynthesis is enough to fulfill plant requirements, the compensation point is reached. After this stage C Arvense is a word Plants do not develop without root reserves

The point of compensation C Arvense is a word The seven-to-ten-leaf stage is between the three-leaf and ten-leaf stages1997Hkansson is the stage’s four-to-seven-leaf. (2003The eight-leaf stage was performed by Nkurunziza and StreibigThe year 2011The three-to-four-leaf stage was written by Verst et alThis year). The root fragment size could be a factor in this stage 1997Verwijst et al This yearThe time needed to reach the compensation point is influenced by the root burial depth 1997)

The use of root reserves is required later in the spring to allow flowering and seed production 1960; 1968). The appearance of flower buds lowers the levels ofCarbohydrates in the rhizome 1968Moore 1975,Tworkoski 1992Rodriguez and his team The year 2007This stage is over C Arvense is a word gradually refilling its root reserves 1929). The migration of photoassimilate to the roots is stimulated by shorter photo periods and a decrease in temperature 1970Tworkoski 1992Nkurunziza and Streibig The year 2011). The maximum of stored carbohydrates is reached in late summer and early fall 1985) C Arvense is a word Then enters dormancy due to low temperatures 1992Nkurunziza and Streibig The year 2011Figure 3The data on the evolution has been summarized in this review C Arvense is a word During the year, root reserves are maintained

A model of root reserves evolution C Arvense is a word During the year. In the early spring, root reserves decrease C Arvense is a word Plants reach the compensation point C Arvense is a word Plants become self-sufficient through aerial shoots. In the spring, root reserves decrease again. From the appearance C Arvense is a word The flower buds start to increase in size C Arvense is a word The root reserves are before the start of the season

Photosynthesis C Arvense is a word During winter, the ceases 1970Nkurunziza 2010) . The existence of winter dormancy has been questioned since a small effect of a decrease in temperature has been observed 2012), And. The root bud activity has been shown in late fall and winter 1985) . The level of reserves available in late winter depends on the amount of reserves accumulated during this period. The level of Carbohydrates in the roots could change with the weather 1970). Seasonal variations are a consequence C Arvense is a word The root reserves C Arvense is a word Control is more efficient during the early spring and after the start of flowering when root reserves are low 1929)

Nonchemical control methods are notchemical C Arvense is a word based on biological processes

Limitation of things C Arvense is a word dispersal

Limitation of dispersal of seeds

Seed dispersal can introduce something C Arvense is a word To new places and to promote the genetic adaptation C Arvense is a word The populations are Heimann and Cussans 1996The limitation of seed dispersal is essential.

The manual cutting is one method C Arvense is a word Inflorescences 1928Tiley 2010If you want to cut inflorescences with a weed cutter, you can C Arvense is a word Plants are taller than the crop 2001This method can be used C Arvense is a word propagation in a field that is contaminated The contribution of field-margin populations is not known C Arvense is a word The field invasion is small 2001)

It is important to clean the machine because it can be used to distribute weed seeds 1927Rogers 1928Donald 1990). Home-saved crop seeds can be contaminated C Arvense is a wordCertified or sorted crop seeds are used to limit propagation 1928; 1968Bond and Grundy are related 2001)

Weed seeds can be present in the field and can be introduced through the use of manure 1928A few seeds C Arvense is a word They are resistant to ingestion by horses, cows, and goats 1927Tiley 2010) . Composting can limit the growth of seeds, but the process efficacy depends on the management of the compost, which has to be at least 1 week long with temperatures maintained at 60 C The year 2007)

The root fragment dispersionLimitation of root fragment dispersion

The root fragments are moving C Arvense is a word The root fragments can be introduced to other fields by being stuck to the wheels of farm machinery or tools 2001Christoffoleti et alThe year 2007Cleaning machinery is important after use in contaminated fields

The root reserves are weakened by mechanical interventions C Arvense is a word

The root reserves are weakened

To gradually weaken root reserves C Arvense is a wordThe parts of the sky C Arvense is a word Repeatedly destroyed can be. After each destruction C Arvense is a word Shoots use the root reserves to initiate regrowth and activity. To achieve efficient control C Arvense is a wordEvery 500– 600 degree day, destruction of aerial parts must be done The year 2011) The period between two interventions should be scheduled in accordance with the stage C Arvense is a word The point at which the compensation is paid 3The goal is to allow C Arvense is a word regrowth and Carbohydrate use to not allow root reserves to build up again 2001; Andersson et al The year of 2013)

Various cultural practices can be used C Arvense is a word exhaustion Repeated mowing or hoeing can destroy aerial parts. Repeated cultivations can be performed to increase efficacy. The break in apical dormancy that occurs when root fragment size is 3–10mm is caused by the break in root fragmentation 2.2The more roots are fragmented, the moreCarbohydrates are used. The control method must be used with care and destruction of root fragments and new shoots must be done. This can lead to a lot of multiplication C Arvense is a word

When root reserves are low, these practices are more efficient than when large quantities of photoassimilates are transported

hoeing and mowing

Repeated mowing and hoeing can help the regrowth of aerial parts 2006Brandster and his team 2012). The studies tested the effectiveness ofselective mowing at the eight-to-ten-leaf stage In 2017:And The ten-leaf stage is called Tavaziva et al 2019) of C Arvense is a wordSignificant decreases of 60% and 88% were recorded C Arvense is a word This practice achieved density. There have been significant decreases in seed production This yearAboveground dry weight and dry weight per shoot. 2019Repeated mowing is not enough to control C Arvense is a word on its own. Six mowings of a crop were performed C Arvense is a word For 3 years, there was a decrease C Arvense is a word Graglia et al 2006). In contrast, mowing of competitive crops is effective 3.3). A slight but significant added effect of planting a cover crop in addition to repeated mowing has been observed, resulting in a 69% decrease C Arvense is a word Graglia et al. describe aerial biomass 2006The report was titled “Cirrps et al2020There was a genetic variation in tolerance to defoliation with overcompensation of some genotypes by the increase in shoot density. This could explain the low efficiency that is observed for repeated mowing

Repeated hoeing can be used to stimulation the regrowth of aerial parts. Only a few studies have been done to control this practice C Arvense is a wordA decrease of 73% and 43% C Arvense is a word After five and six successive hoeings, the amount of biomass has been observed 2006) . Three successive hoeings were found to induce a reduction in root reserve level The year 2007). The weak and short-term control provided by repeated hoeing could be explained by the limited impact on root reserves

The destruction of aerial parts allows limited control C Arvense is a word. This practice could be used in a global control strategy

Stubble farming

Repeated stubble cultivation is a well-known control method. The late summer is when root fragmentation is used to control C Arvense is a word The optimal intervention period is late spring, but this can be done after the harvest The year 1958The authors are: Derscheid et al 1961) . A minimum of three cultivations should be implemented The year 2007Brandster and his team 2012). The duckfoot cultivator is the most used implement 2004). Recent studies have compared implements with strategies. The results of studies are presented in a table 1

The most important factors in controlling C Arvense is a word The number and timing of stubble cultivations are what appear to be. A number of cultivations can be carried out from late spring to late summer C Arvense is a word In 1 or 2 years 1961; 1970; The year 2015) . It is not easy to do this because it is expensive and involves a lot of work and fuel The year 2016). This can explain why this practice is used in trials. The trial which tested bare fallow conditions with repeated cultivations was the only one which used a PTO driven rotary cultivator 3.4Ltjnen is a word In 2017:)

Significant control can be provided by the implementation of cultivations later in the summer C Arvense is a wordThree to four crops are being cultivated during two consecutive intercrops. Melander and her team had 2–3 cultivations2012Lower reductions were observed C Arvense is a word The densities are in the table 1)

There have been few differences in the outcomes of the tests. The implements tested are effective because previous experiments have shown how efficient the implements can be 1913; people who work in the field 1927). A cultivation depth of between 5 and 15 cm. It seems to make little difference C Arvense is a word The table has control 1Melander et al 2012; The year of) . The increase in the depth of stubble cultivations could cause weed seeds to rise. The cultivation depth can be the same or less than the usual tillage depth, even if the depth is low

The distribution and diameter of the soil can be affected C Arvense is a word Rogers reported the roots1928). In sandy and light soils, cultivates are more effective In 2017:) Most of the roots are located in the upper soil layers. . The roots are thinner in these soils, which means that less Carbohydrate is stored 1928)

The ecotype is a possible factor C Arvense is a wordEfficacy differences between several ecotypes have been observed1970Most C Arvense is a word Some patches were still present with a density of 32% after being suppressed. To build a sustainable system C Arvense is a wordKnowledge about the variations in efficacy C Arvense is a word The duration of the beneficial impacts of repeated cultivations is important

Plowing

It is essential to plow C Arvense is a word Control has shown many significant results 2004Melander et al 2012Melander and her team2012The fall moldboard plowing was more effective than the spring moldboard plowing in sandy soil. When plowing was associated with summer cultivations, the difference was gone. Brandster and her teamIn 2017:The reduction was also better C Arvense is a word The late spring moldboard plowing is more important than the fall plowing in sandy and clay soils. There are differences in the efficacy of spring plowing and repeated cultivations. The late plowing would be more efficient than early spring plowing C Arvense is a word In late spring 2.2 And a table 1The ability of spring crops to be sown quickly after plowing can increase the efficacy of spring plowing C Arvense is a word Thomsen and her co-conspirators shoots (Thomsen et al.) The year of)

Two trials tried a double-layer plowing that combines a shallow inversion of the topsoil with a noninversive soil loosenment by a goose foot-shaped chisel, thus the natural soil stratification of the subsoil is maintained In 2009Jasinskaite et alIn 2009There was a significant decrease in that case C Arvense is a word density with double-layer plowing compared to moldboard plowing The plowings were done at a depth of 20 cm. Claupein and GruberIn 2009Double-layer plowing reduces the depth C Arvense is a word The results were similar at deep plowing (25 cm) and at 15- cm depth

Farmers can use deep ripping to fragment C Arvense is a word There is no scientific data on the effect of deep ripping on the control of the roots C Arvense is a word Or similar weeds

Competition with cultivated species can have an effect

The principles of competition C Arvense is a word Control

Competition for light limits the growth of weeds. There are different ways to limit C Arvense is a word The seeding of crops with a reduced spacing row and significant soil cover is harmful. The root systems have a correlation with the competition for water and nutrients C Arvense is a word The deep root system can reach a depth of 2 to 1928; Hayden 1934Moore 1975,). It has a competitive advantage over most cultivated species. Competition can be promoted by seeding species with deep root systems C Arvense is a wordThese crops can take up a lot of water and water-related resources C Arvense is a word There are roots present 1989). Several cultural practices use these two types of competition during the intercropping period

There are some crops that are competitive: alfalfa and temporary grassland

The main crops are used to control C Arvense is a word Are mownMedicago is a plant of the cannabis family) There are temporary grasslands 1999Husler and Verschwele 2004Melander et al The year 2016). The effects of competition for light are combined with significant soil cover developing earlier than expected C Arvense is a word in the spring The year 1958After mowing, the regrowing is quick. There is a competition for access to water and nutrients in the deep root system 1928mowing stimulates C Arvense is a word The regrowth of the root reserves leads to the release of Carbohydrates The year 1958In comparison, in the grown for seed production of alfalfa C Arvense is a word Mesbah and Miller are troublesome weeds 2005)

Mown alfalfa has a lot of control C Arvense is a word dgson The year 1958The authors are: Derscheid et al 1961; Schreiber 1967Ominski et al 1999; 2010) . A significant efficacy of 99% has been observed for 3-year alfalfa, mown twice a year in a dry continental climate The year 1958). Similar results have been obtained for 4-year alfalfa, mown two to four times per year 1967) For 2 years, mown twice in an ocean climate The year 2007). mown alfalfa efficacy does not seem to vary much with climate. Some studies have determined that C Arvense is a word Control is improved in the systems that include 2- to 6-year-old alfalfa 1999; 2010)

Farmers can be hard pressed to include forage crops in arable crop rotation if there is no other way to make money The year 2016More precise knowledge of the benefits of the crops C Arvense is a word Control could help determine the level C Arvense is a word Even if cover crops are considered beneficial, there is still an advantage to be had from the introduction of pluriannual forage crops

The introduction of pluriannual crops is beneficial since it doesn’t require any additional intervention since it’s already done. The impact on soil fertility of these practices is positive In 2017:; Jarvis et al In 2017:Other nonchemical control practices are not as good The year 2015Melander et al The year 2016)

Control crops and competitive annual crops C Arvense is a word

There are a few studies that have focused on something C Arvense is a word Competition with annual crops can be used to control it C Arvense is a word In crop rotation, spreads in arable crops are more common 2004)The year 1958Spring wheat is not effective at controlling itself C Arvense is a wordHusler and Verschwele are related2004A high proportion of cereals and summer annual crops can be found in the crop rotation of fields C Arvense is a word It is problematic. The person is RasmussenThe year 2011The effect of fiber hemp was not significant or beneficial C Arvense is a word Control is due to its competitive ability C Arvense is a word The fall was when it was observed C Arvense is a word The next crop of spring barley had the same densities as fields with a different previous crop. The effect has been tested C Arvense is a word A 1-year fallow is developed based on grasses and leguminous mixtures. Graglia et al2006A significant decrease was reported C Arvense is a word White clover is composed of biomass after a 16-month fallowThe repens are a type of plant) There is a mixture of grass. The authors of Thomsen et alThe year 2015A significant decrease was observed C Arvense is a word After a 16-month fallow, the timothy is leftPleum is a Latin word for “Pratense.”, 12.5 lbs. hameadow fescue is a plantFestuca is a species of plants7.5 kilo ha, red flowerArvense is a Trifolium arvense, 3.75 lbs. haWhite clover is also includedThe repens are a type of plant1.25 kilo haFertilization can help the crop compete better C Arvense is a word Or, in other words, favor C Arvense is a word Development. McIntyre and Hunter have had differing results1975,) Kalburtji and Mamolos2001The competitive ability and development of N fertilization was found to be positive C Arvense is a wordMelander and her team did not do as well as the othersThe year 2016There was no impact of the application on the environment C Arvense is a word. There are more studies on the use of cover crops C Arvense is a word control It is hard to tell the effect of cover crop competition and the effect of mowing in publications. It is necessary to separate allelopathic effects and physical inhibition by mulch. The results of studies are presented in a table 2, Which practices were tested.

Most decreases C Arvense is a word sudangrass and Bicksler have been observed In 2009Wedryk and Cardina 2012). Sudangrass can reach a height of up to 3 m 2003In Bicksler and Masiunas are related In 2009It is much higher than C Arvense is a wordIt may explain its ability to compete C Arvense is a wordA great ability for soil covering and rapid development is what cover crops have C Arvense is a word The production of photoassimilates In 2009Wedryk and Cardina 2012The poor competitive ability of this cover crop is caused by the short growth of buckwheat C Arvense is a word. Eskelsen and Crabtree are included1995There is only competition for light between C Arvense is a word The species do not use the same resources and there is no competition for water and nutrients

The main decreases C Arvense is a word The sowing dates for May or June have been obtained In 2009Wedryk and Cardina 2012When root reserves are low C Arvense is a word are not high. Summer development of cover crops is more competitive The year 2007Bicksler and Masiunas are related In 2009) They reach their maximal growth at a low root reserve period C Arvense is a word root reserves are prevented from being rebuilt

The combination of planting and mowing can achieve better results C Arvense is a word The species used to be adapted to repeated mowing, such as sudangrass, in contrast to the one used to be called buckwheat In 2009) . An additional effect is not always observed despite regrowth of the mown cover crop. The effect of planting a cover crop and mowing is variable, which is unexplained by Bicksler and MasiunasIn 2009The cover crop sowing interventions could also have an impact C Arvense is a word Development and cover crop destruction have an impact C Arvense is a word The cover crop is destroyed at the same time 1988 In Liebman and Dyck 1993)

Competition with cultivated species does not allow total control C Arvense is a word To be achieved. The practice does not last. Rapid and large increases in observations are seen when observations have continued for at least a year after a crop or cover crop destruction C Arvense is a word have been observed Some studies compared the effect of competitive and noncompetitive crops C Arvense is a wordThe densities were the same in all the modalities after the trial In 2009; The year 2011This practice can be combined with mechanical interventions to improve C Arvense is a word Control can be achieved by combining competitive crops and cultural practices C Arvense is a wordThe growth of the plants was reduced by the actions of green manure, deep burial and short roots C Arvense is a word by 95– 100%, compared to 83–2% reduction by use of green manure alone, 26–37% by short roots alone, and 13–31% reduction by deep burial of roots alone. Thomsen et al The year 2011)

The effect of root removal C Arvense is a word

The principles of root removal

In dry and/or frozen weather, root extraction can be done with long pieces of weed roots. The roots can be left on the soil surface or exposed to sunlight to achieve desiccation The year of), Or The field was removed. The root fragments have been taken from the soil with specific implements, including winged or goosefoot shares In 2017:) . The passage of a PTO-driven rotary cultivator causes soil and root fragments to be thrown. The root fragments are lighter than the soil and can be desiccate or picked up The year of). The best results are in light soils with low soil moisture. root fragments can remain below the soil surface if these conditions are not met C Arvense is a word multiplication

root extract methods C Arvense is a word Control

Only a few studies deal with it C Arvense is a word The root is removed. Brandster and her team2012The decrease in the amount of wheat that was harvest in late summer was observed C Arvense is a word The density was measured in the following year of the experiment. The same results were obtained in the same experiment with shallow plowing and passes of an S-tine harrow 1The C Arvense is a word The regrowth never reached the compensation point

Ltjnen has tested the use of the Kvick-Finn cultivatorIn 2017:Only 3% of the population C Arvense is a word After three passes of a Kvick-Finn cultivator in May and June, remained alive. Similar results have been obtained after repeated stubble cultivations 1Brandster and her team wrote a book called “Brandster et al 2012Melander et al 2012). The use of specific implements could allow bare fallow strategies C Arvense is a wordThey have negative environmental and economic impacts. This practice could be done before sowing a summer crop to avoid suppressing the crop and limit the economic impact

The results of the experiments show that root extract could improve the efficacy of repeated cultivations In 2017:The weather in the months following treatment is a factor in the efficacy of this practice. The roots must be desiccated and/or frosted to allow them to dry C Arvense is a word regrowth of Ltjnen and Vihonen The year of) Repeated harrowing after root removal could help prevent C Arvense is a word Reimplantation to prevent multiplication. If the conditions for success are not met in the area, this control method should not be implemented

Other methods to control C Arvense is a word

Other control methods are outlined. New possibilities for future investigations could be presented by these methods

Solarization

Solarization involves covering the soil with a transparent plastic sheet during the appropriate period 1991). This treatment is applied to weeds. The effect of solarization C Arvense is a word Control has been shown in two studies The year 2011Khan and his team 2012) . The results were the same for all films. The authors are Candido et alThe year 2011The soil temperature was maintained between 40 and 55 C at 10- cm depth, but at greater depths, temperatures were more variable. In Khan and his associates2012The soil temperature was 45 to 52 C at 10- cm depth. It can be assumed that solarization has an impact C Arvense is a word The roots are 10 cm in depth C Arvense is a word It is not possible to say if solarization had an effect on deeper roots

It is necessary to test solarization in colder climates to see if the conditions can be achieved. Solarization appears to encourage the growth of some problematic weedsThe deflexus is a plant, The retroanthus is a flower, The drug Vicia is known for, The sulcatus is named after Melilotus) (Candido et al The year 2011Khan and his team 2012Khan et al say that the increase in N availability is partly due to it. 2012)

Control of organisms

Biological control is the use of living agents to reduce the spread of weeds The year 2007Lundist and Verkvwijst are related The year 2011There have been many studies done on biological control C Arvense is a wordPathogens have been studied more than insects C Arvense is a word The control is in the greenhouses The year 2011Orloff et al This year). The most effective agents were found in the studies C Arvense is a word Are the pests? The word punctiformis is derived from the Latin word punct And Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is asclerotiAlong with the beetle The name of the plant is Cassida rubiginosa Orloff et al This yearBiological control has no effect C Arvense is a word The main biocontrol agents have an impact on the aerial parts C Arvense is a word Allow regrowth after it is suppressed 1984Tiley 2010; The year 2011) . The use of several biological agents, such as Follivar, could improve the efficacy of biological control 2010; The year 2011) . Repeated cutting and biological control can be combined to improve efficacy 2003)

Biological agents can cause significant damage to nontarget species 1984; The year 2011Many agents were used C Arvense is a word Control can cause damage to native The name of the mineral is cisium The species only produce seeds. Studies on the agents are done The name of the plant is Cassida rubiginosa And The piger is named after the Cleonus pig The risk of damage to artichoke has stopped them from entering North AmericaCynara is a type of mammal) The year 2011) . The management of agent populations and their interactions with the local environment are some of the issues highlighted by the application of biocontrol agents in agricultural conditions. For instance, agents must be limited in their mobility to remain on the plants 1984). Imported organisms must be adapted to local climate conditions The year 2011). A biotic resistance or a predator relationship can arise 1984; The year 2011The parameters make it difficult to explain why biocontrol methods are not currently used C Arvense is a word control

Control practices impacting different biological processes

The development of annual or multiyear strategies combining several methods would be possible as current methods only have a partial effect C Arvense is a word Control will be improved. The methods should include biological processes for better efficacy In 2009). Crop competition and the loss of root reserves are the main biological processes 3.3). The most studied example is mown alfalfa, it is associated with alfalfa competition and weakens root reserves The year 1958). The realization of repeated stubble cultivations in summer leads to the weakening of root reserves, followed by sowing of a competitive cover crop The year 2007)

A more complex combination of biological processes has recently been studied In 2017:) . The trial consisted of repeated passes of a specific implement for root removal in the late spring and summer. The study shows that the processes were associated with interventions at a key stage C Arvense is a word

Individual practices do not always result in a better effect than combinations of practices In 2009) . Further research is needed on which processes are relevant. There has been no study of a multiyear strategy consisting of combinations of annual practices

Discussion

Knowledge of things C Arvense is a word The dynamics of root reserves throughout the year have been explained by biology, and they have also provided suggestions for the implementation of stubble cultivations at the compensation point. More research is being done C Arvense is a word Control is important to biology. The knowledge of things C Arvense is a word Population dynamics, along with the impact of pedoclimatic conditions and their variations on the growth and development of the population C Arvense is a wordIt is also necessary

Diverse factors have an impact C Arvense is a word Population ecotypes, soil types, and climate are not well known. There is a lack of knowledge about the impact C Arvense is a word The most recent patches have less competitive ability on crops than the control practices 2001), And. The increase in patch size has been shown to be predictable 2003). Furthermore C Arvense is a word Climate change and increased CO could lead to an increase in development2 The levels areHatcher and Froud-Williams In 2017:Even if Trresen et al. did it. (2019There were conflicting results

Nonchemicals are current C Arvense is a word The introduction of mown forage crops in the rotation and the weakened root reserves of arable crops have been the focus of control. Some C Arvense is a word Control methods that are less studied are competition, deep cultivations, and root extraction. Studies on crop management routes are still needed for these methods. The duration of the current’s efficacy is unknown C Arvense is a word Control methods and practices were implemented over the next few years. It is important to understand interactions with other practices, such as fertilization, when practices involve a competition process. fertilization could favor the sown species, improving their competitive ability C Arvense is a word Development

Farmers could face difficulties implementing something C Arvense is a word The time available for repeated cultivations in summer can be reduced by the late harvest dates of cereals. When specific species are advised, it can be difficult to find seeds In 2009Wedryk and Cardina 2012) . If high sowing densities are necessary, the cost of cover crop seeds can be problematic. EU farmers can use funds from the Common Agricultural Policy for environmental measures, and reuse the seeds of cover crops. Practical application of some can be limited by the cost of specific implements C Arvense is a word Control methods that involve root removal. Collective investment could be developed to help farmers purchase the implements. It would be useful to know if more usual implements can achieve similar results

C Arvense is a word Control methods can have negative impacts The year 2016The most studied practices are the mechanical interventions C Arvense is a word Control, involve high fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and take up a lot of working time for farmers The year of). If the last cultivations induce a late sowing date, cover crop growth can be disrupted and the growth of the crop can be reduced The year 2015), It could have a negative impact on cover crop services. . The development of no-till systems is contrary to repeated cultivations because of their long-term soil fertility and economic reasons. Unless they are associated with competitive crops, hoeing and mowing are less effective than they would be if they were not. The root extract method could reduce the negative impacts C Arvense is a word control The use of competitive crops and cover crops as control methods can have a positive impact on soil fertility, in contrast to cultivations, and improve the management of the soil’s resources 2010Haruna and Nkongolo The year 2015Current knowledge on these practices is limited

The benefits of each control method should be studied in relation to its benefits at annual and crop system scales to limit their negative impacts and to help farmers choose the control practices best suited to their situations. The time schedule for the cultivation should be adjusted to take into account the following crop and the intercrops to allow the implementation of control methods at sensitive stages C Arvense is a wordIn order to maximize the efficacy of flower buds, and in order to not disturb the cover crop, in order to be able to see the flowers. Furthermore, when C Arvense is a word There are patches located C Arvense is a word Control on a local scale could be possible

There is a lack of knowledge to enable the implementation of different control methods on a yearly or multiyear scale. The effects of control practices and biological processes are largely unknown. Knowledge of the duration of the practices’ effectiveness is needed to plan the amount of control methods that are implemented. Knowledge of nonchemical control methods C Arvense is a word Miller shows how they could be combined with conventional control methods to provide efficient mixed strategiesThe year 2016)

The adaptation of a story C Arvense is a word Control methods to local conditions are a challenge. New methods for producing innovations, such as the codesign of farming systems involving researchers and farmers, can allow the design of multiyear strategies for pest management fitted to a specific context 2012Petit et al 2012; Lefvre et al The year ofAnd It could be done C Arvense is a word control The study of innovative farmers practices can be used to find solutions. Tracking on-farm innovations is one of the methods used The year 2015Salembier et al The year 2016Salembier is abier 2019Alternative methods and multiyear strategies developed by farmers could be highlighted

Additional knowledge is still needed C Arvense is a word This is one of the best-known perennial weeds. Similarities in the biological characteristics C Arvense is a word Perennial weeds are The convolvulus arvensis is a plantThe basis for identifying new control methods for these weeds could be provided. Control of specific weeds is the focus of research, whereas mixed stands of weeds are often present in fields. It is important to integrate C Arvense is a word Control strategies into more comprehensive thinking 2012, The year 2016) And. There is more research to be done on the simultaneous control of weed species. The approach to functional traits was developed by Gaba and his teamIn 2017:This could be interesting

Conclusions

The efficiency of some C Arvense is a word Control methods are already known, for instance, the implementation of repeated stubble cultivations in summer and the introduction of mown alfalfa have been shown to be efficient. There is little known about the long-term efficacy of these control methods. One individual practice is not enough to provide satisfactory control C Arvense is a word Control strategies are required in the long term. Knowledge about the implementation of such combinations of control methods in multiyear strategies is limited and further studies on interactions, complementarities, and synergies between control methods are needed C Arvense is a word They are necessary. Further research is needed to limit the negative impacts of the environment C Arvense is a word Control methods

Knowledge of these control practices is needed to guarantee their efficiency C Arvense is a word It is essential. The review takes the key points from the previous literature and makes them better C Arvense is a word This can be accomplished by biology. We propose a conceptual model of the evolution of the thistle root reserves, which will allow us to understand the diversity of the effects of the same practice, and opens the door for research on the combinations of control methods

C Arvense is a word Perennial weeds are problematic, but other perennial weeds are also well-known. Control of annual and perennial weeds can be different. If stubble cultivations are to weaken the root reserves of perennial weeds or decrease the soil seed bank of annual weeds, they need to be implemented at a different time. In a crop system that does not use pesticides or only uses them as a last resort, the rotation, sowing, and mowing dates must be scheduled according to the whole flora to be controlled. To build global strategies for weed control, research is required on the control of mixed stands of perennial and annual weeds. These investigations are necessary because of the changing regulations

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  103. The effect of crop rotation and tillage on the growth of the plant Cirsium arvense in organic farming systems was studied. The 6th EWRS Workshop on Weed Control was held in Lillehammer, Norway You can download the viewdoc from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu rep1

  104. The effects of cutting and spraying on spring barley on seed production was studied Arvense is a type of plantSection B – Soil is from the book, “Atra Agriculturae Scandinavica” It can be found in the following places:

  105. The assessment of the compensation point was done by Verwijst T Arvense is a type of plant Weed Res 58(4):292–303 shows effects of competition, root weight and burial depth on below-ground dry weight There is a report on this topic in the archives of the journal, “Wre.12312.”

  106. Wedryk and Cardina J are involved in crop mixture for Canada thistleArvense is a type of plantsuppression in organic transition WeedSci 60: 622–622 The article is titled “WS-D-11-00140.1.”

  107. Welton FA, Morris VH, Hartzler AJ are related to the eradication of Canada thistles. Bulletin of the agricultural experiment station in Ohio The website of the Ohio State University

  108. Westwood, Charudattan, Duke, Fennimore, Marrone, Slaughter, DC, Swanton, Zollinger, and others wrote about the future of weed science. The WeedSci 66(03):275–285 is a book The article was published in the journalwsc

  109. Wilson was the author of Germination and seedling development of Canada thistleArvense is a type of plantThe WeedSci 27(2), is titled: 146–151 It was published in the journal, “S0043174500043708.”

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  1. The person is Elise Favrelire

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  2. Acha Ronceux is a character from the movie “Acha Ronceux”

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The original draft of the collection and analysis of the corpus was E.F. Funding acquisition and resources: J.P. Scientific supervision

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Ronceux, A., Pernel, J., and Favrelire are all related They were et al A perennial weed is nonchemically controlled Arvense is a type of plantIn arable systems. A review Sustain40 The article was published in the journal “Scientific Reports” on 31st of 2020

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The following are the things that are mentioned


  • Arvense is a type of plant
  • Perennial weed
  • Weed control
  • Nonchemical methods are not chemical
  • Arable systems